The National Safety Council (NSC) estimates that 1. 6 million (25%) of crashes annually are due to calling on a smartphone, and another 1 million (18%) are caused by texting while driving. These numbers equate to one accident caused every 24 seconds by driving distracted from phone use. It also reported that speaking in a call while driving reduces focus on the road and the act of driving by 37 percent, irrespective of hands-free calling operation. Calling on a phone is estimated to increase the risk of experienced drivers crashing or nearly crashing by a factor of 2. 5. The US Department of Transportation estimates that reaching for a phone distracts a driver for 4. 6 seconds; at 55 miles per hour, this could equal a football field of distance.